UPSC Sociology Syllabus 2023 – IAS Mains Optional Subjects

Check out the latest UPSC Mains Sociology Syllabus 2023. The sociology subject is one of the optional papers in the UPSC IAS Mains Exam. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Syllabus, Now we are providing UPSC Mains Optional Subject Syllabus of Sociology Paper. There is only “ONE” optional subject to choose from the list of optional subjects which are given below. It comprises of two papers each of 250 marks. So, the optional paper has a total 500 marks. In UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam, Sociology is one of the Optional Subjects and consists of 2 papers. Each paper is of 250 marks with a total of 500 marks. Find below the UPSC Syllabus for Sociology Optional Subject.

Also Check: UPSC Mains Optional Subjects List

UPSC Sociology Syllabus

UPSC Mains Part B  – Optional Subjects
Subject: Sociology Main Examination Syllabus

Download UPSC Mains Optional Subject Syllabus in Pdf

UPSC Mains Sociology Syllabus Paper 1


UPSC Mains Sociology Syllabus Paper 2


UPSC Syllabus - IAS Prelims Mains Exam Pattern

UPSC Mains Sociology Syllabus PAPER – I


  1. Sociology – The Discipline:

(a)  Modernity and social changes in Europe and the emergence of sociology. (b)  The scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. (c)   Sociology and common sense.

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  1. Sociology as Science:

(a)  Science, scientific method, and critique. (b)  Major theoretical strands of research methodology. (c)   Positivism and its critique. (d)  Fact value and objectivity. (e)   Non- positivist methodologies.

  1. Research Methods and Analysis:

(a)  Qualitative and quantitative methods. (b)  Techniques of data collection. (c)   Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

  1. Sociological Thinkers:

(a)  Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle. (b)  Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion, and society. (c)   Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. (d)  Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables. (e)   Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups. (f) Mead – Self and identity.

  1. Stratification and Mobility:

(a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation. (b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory. (c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race. (d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

  1. Works and Economic Life:

(a) The social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society. (b) Formal and informal organization of work. (c) Labour and society.

  1. Politics and Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of power. (b)  Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties. (c)   Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology. (d)  Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

  1. Religion and Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of religion. (b)  Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults. (c)   Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

  1. Systems of Kinship:

(a)  Family, household, marriage. (b)  Types and forms of family. (c)   Lineage and descent. (d)  Patriarchy and sexual division of labour. (e)   Contemporary trends.

  1. Social Change in Modern Society:

(a)  Sociological theories of social change. (b)  Development and dependency. (c)   Agents of social change. (d)  Education and social change. (e)   Science, technology and social change.

UPSC Mains Sociology Syllabus PAPER – II

INDIAN SOCIETY: STRUCTURE AND CHANGE A. Introducing Indian Society: (i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society: (a)  Indology (GS. Ghurye). (b)  Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas). (c)   Marxist sociology (A R Desai). (ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society : (a)  Social background of Indian nationalism. (b)  Modernization of Indian tradition. (c)   Protests and movements during the colonial period. (d)  Social reforms.

  • Social Structure:

(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

(a)  The idea of an Indian village and village studies. (b)  Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

(ii)  Caste System:

(a)  Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille. (b)  Features of caste system. (c)   Untouchability – forms and perspectives.

(iii) Tribal communities in India:

(a) Definitional problems. (b)  Geographical spread. (c)   Colonial policies and tribes. (d)  Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:

(a)  Agrarian class structure. (b)  Industrial class structure. (c)   Middle classes in India.

(v)  Systems of Kinship in India:

(a)  Lineage and descent in India. (b)  Types of kinship systems. (c)   Family and marriage in India. (d)  Household dimensions of the family. (e)   Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labor.

(vi) Religion and Society:

(a)  Religious communities in India. (b)  Problems of religious minorities.

  • Social Changes in India:

(i)  Visions of Social Change in India:

(a)  The idea of development planning and mixed economy. (b)  Constitution, law and social change. (c)   Education and social change.

(ii)  Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

(a)  Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes. (b)  Green revolution and social change. (c)   Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture. (d)  Problems of rural labor, bondage, migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

(a)  Evolution of modern industry in India. (b)  The growth of urban settlements in India. (c)   Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. (d)  The informal sector, child labor. (e)   Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society:

(a)  Nation, democracy and citizenship. (b)  Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite. (c)   Regionalism and decentralization of power. (d)  Secularization.

(v)  Social Movements in Modern India:

(a)  Peasants and farmers movements. (b)  Women’s movement. (c)   Backward classes & Dalit movement. (d)  Environmental movements. (e)   Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics:

(a)  Population size, growth, composition, and distribution. (b)  Components of population growth: birth, death, migration. (c)   Population policy and family planning. (d)  Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

(a)  Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability. (b)  Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. (c)   Violence against women. (d)  Caste conflicts. (e)   Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. (f)  Illiteracy and disparities in education.

Also, Check Other Optional Subject’s Syllabus

UPSC Main Examination Part B – Optional Subjects

Agriculture Main Syllabus

Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science Main Syllabus

Botany Main Syllabus

Boda Main Syllabus

Chemistry Main Syllabus

Civil Engineering Main Syllabus

Commerce Main Syllabus

Economics Main Syllabus

Electrical Engineering Main Syllabus

Geography Main Syllabus

Geology Main Syllabus

Indian History Main Syllabus

Law Main Syllabus

Mathematics Main Syllabus

Mechanical Engineering Main Syllabus

Medical Science Main Syllabus

Philosophy Main Syllabus

Physics Main Syllabus

Political Science Main Syllabus

Psychology Main Syllabus

Public Administration Main Syllabus

Sociology Main Syllabus

Statistics Main Syllabus

Zoology Main Syllabus

Anthropology Main Syllabus

Arabic Main Syllabus

Assamese Main Syllabus

Bengali Main Syllabus

Dogri Main Syllabus

English Main Syllabus

Gujarati Main Syllabus

Hindi Main Syllabus

Kannada Main Syllabus

Kashmiri Main Syllabus

Konkani Main Syllabus

Maithili Main Syllabus

Malayalam Main Syllabus

Manipuri Main Syllabus

Marathi Main Syllabus

Nepali Main Syllabus

Oriya Main Syllabus

Persian Main Syllabus

Punjabi Main Syllabus

Sanskrit Main Syllabus

Santali Main Syllabus

Sindi Main Syllabus

Tamil Main Syllabus

Telugu Main Syllabus

Urdu Main Syllabus

Management Main Syllabus

In this website, We’ve provided UPSC Sociology Syllabus in pdf, UPSC Mains Sociology Previous Question Papers (Last 5 years), and how to prepare UPSC / IAS / Civil Services Mains Sociology Paper. Still, have any issues and queries regarding UPSC Sociology Subject, you can drop a comment below.

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