# Data Structure Lecture Notes Pdf- Download B.Tech 1st Year Notes, Study Material, Books

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## Data Structure Lecture Notes Pdf For Engineering

The* Data Structure is a representation of the logical relationship existing between individual elements of data*. In other words, a data structure defines a way of organizing all data items that consider not only the elements stored but also their relationship to each other. The term data structure is used to describe the way data is stored.

**Basic Concept: **The term data structure is used to describe the way data is stored, and the term algorithm is used to describe the way data is processed. Data structures and algorithms are interrelated. Choosing a data structure affects the kind of algorithm you might use, and choosing an algorithm affects the data structures we use. An Algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, each of which has a clear meaning and can be performed with a finite amount of effort in a finite length of time. No matter what the input values may be, an algorithm terminates after executing a finite number of instructions.

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### List of Reference Books for Data Structures – 2nd Sem

- Data structures, Algorithms, and Applications in C++, S.Sahni, University Press (India) Pvt.Ltd, 2nd edition, Universities Press Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd.
- Data structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++, Mark Allen Weiss, Pearson Education. Ltd., Second Edition.
- Data structures and algorithms in C++, 3rd Edition, Adam Drozdek, Thomson
- Data structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++, Mark Allen Weiss, Pearson Education. Ltd., Second Edition.
- Data structures using C and C++, Langsam, Augenstein and Tanenbaum, PHI.
- Problem-solving with C++, The OOP, Fourth edition, W.Savitch, Pearson education.

### Data Structures Using ‘C’ Syllabus- 1st Year

**UNIT-I:** ARRAYS

Abstract Data Type, The Array as an Abstract Data Type, The Polynomial Abstract Data type- Polynomial Representation- Polynomial Addition. Spares Matrices, Introduction- Sparse Matrix Representation- Transposing a Matrix- Matrix Multiplication, Representation of Arrays.

**UNIT-II:** STACKS AND QUEUES

The Stack Abstract Data Type, The Queue Abstract Data Type, Evaluation of Expressions, Expression- Postfix Notation- Infix to Postfix.

**UNIT-III:** LINKED LISTS

Single Linked List and Chains, Circular Lists, Available Space Lists, Linked Stacks and Queues, Polynomials, Polynomial Representation- Adding Polynomials- Circular List Representation of Polynomials, Equivalence Classes, Sparse Matrices, Sparse Matrix Representation- Sparse Matrix Input- Deleting a Sparse Matrix, Doubly Linked Lists, Generalized Lists, Representation of Generalized Lists- Recursive Algorithms for Lists- Reference Counts, Shared and Recursive Lists

**UNIT-IV:** TREES

Representation of Trees, Binary Trees, The Abstract Data Type, Properties of Binary Tress, Binary Tree Representations, Binary Tree Traversal, Introduction, Inorder Traversal Preorder Traversal, Postorder Traversal, Thread Binary Trees, Threads, Inorder Traversal of a Threaded Binary Tree, Inserting a Node into a Threaded Binary Tree, Heaps, Priority Queues, Definition of a Max Heap, Insertion into a Max Heap, Deletion from a Max Heap, Binary Search Trees, Definition, Searching a Binary Search Tree, Insertion into a Binary Search Tree, Deletion from a Binary Search Tree, Height of Binary Search Tree.

**UNIT-V:** GRAPHS

The Graph Abstract Data Type, Introduction, Definition, Graph Representation, Elementary Graph Operation, Depth First Search, Breadth First Search, Connected Components, Spanning Trees,

Biconnected Components, Minimum Cost Spanning Trees, Kruskal S Algorithm, Prims Algorithm, Sollin’s Algorithm, Shortest Paths, and Transitive Closure, Single Source/All Destination: Nonnegative Edge Cost, Single Source/All Destination: General Weights, All-Pairs Shortest Path, Transitive Closure.

**UNIT-VI:** SORTING

Insertion Sort, Quick Sort, Merge Sort Merging, Iterative Merge Sort, Recursive Merge Sort, Heap Sort, Summary of Internal Sorting

**Course OUTCOMES:**

• Apply advanced data structure strategies for exploring complex DS’s.

• Compare and contrast various data structures and design techniques in the area

Of Performance.

• Implement all DS like stacks, queues, trees, lists, and graphs and compare their

Performance and trade-offs

### Data Structure using ‘c’ Review Questions

- Define an algorithm.
- State the various steps in developing algorithms?
- State the properties of algorithms.
- Define the efficiency of an algorithm?
- State the various methods to estimate the efficiency of an algorithm.
- Define the time complexity of an algorithm?
- Define the worst case of an algorithm.
- Mention the various spaces utilized by a program.
- Define the average case of an algorithm.
- Define the best case of an algorithm.
- What is the importance of the stopping case in recursive functions?
- Write a function with one positive integer parameter called n. The function will
- write 2^n-1 integers (where ^ is the exponentiation operation). Here are the patterns of output for various values of n: n=1: Output is: 1; n=2: Output is: 1 2 1; n=3: Output is: 1 2 1 3 1 2 1; n=4: Output is: 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 And so on. Note that the output for n always consists of the output for n-1, followed by n itself, followed by a second copy of the output for n-1.
- Write a recursive function for the mathematical function: f(n) = 1 if n = 1; f(n) = 2 * f(n-1) if n >= 2
- Which method is preferable in general?

a) Recursive method

b) Non-recursive method

- Write a function using Recursion to print numbers from n to 0.
- Write a function using Recursion to enter and display a string in reverse and state whether the string contains any spaces. Don’t use arrays/strings.

### Buy Data Structures Using ‘C’ Books for 1st year Online at Amazon.in

- Harry
- Programmers Mind Inc,
- Kindle Edition
- English

- Amiya Kumar Rath, Alok Kumar Jagadev
- Scitech Publications (India) Pvt Ltd
- Paperback: 660 pages

- BHUPENDRA SINGH MANDLOI
- Kindle Edition
- English

- Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
- Pearson Education
- Edition no. 1 (01/01/1970)
- Paperback: 324 pages

- Addison Wesley Longman
- Michael Main, Walter Savitch
- Pearson
- Edition no. 4 (02/24/2010)
- Paperback: 856 pages

- Hemant Jain
- Taran Technologies Private Limited
- Edition no. First (08/25/2016)
- Paperback: 432 pages

- Prentice Hall
- Jeffrey Esakov
- Pearson
- Edition no. Facsimile (01/12/1989)
- Hardcover: 336 pages

- Reema Thareja
- Oxford
- Paperback: 608 pages

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