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Higher Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because at this juncture specialized discipline based, content -oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and other applied areas. Therefore, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the senior secondary stage.
The new and updated curriculum is based on disciplinary approach with rigour and depth taking care that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. The knowledge related to the subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes during the past one
decade. Many new areas like synthetic materials, bio -molecules, natural resources, industrial chemistry are coming in a big way and deserve to be an integral part of chemistry syllabus at senior secondary stage. At international level, new formulations and nomenclature of elements and compounds, symbols and units of physical quantities floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC and CGPM are of immense importance and need to be incorporated in the updated syllabus. The revised syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Greater emphasis has been laid on use of new nomenclature, symbols and formulations, teaching of fundamental concepts, application of concepts in chemistry to industry/ technology, logical sequencing of units, removal of obsolete content and repetition, etc.
The curriculum of Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage aims to :
- Make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine, engineering, technology) at tertiary level.
- Promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of chemistry.
- Develop problem solving skills in students.
- Expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications.
- Develop an interest in students to study chemistry as a discipline.
- Integrate life skills and values in the context of chemistry.
- Expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in future studies and their application in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
- Equip students to face various challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population, weather, industries and agriculture.
- Apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering etc.
- Acquaint students with different aspects of chemistry used in daily life.
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2018 – 2019
|Unit No.||Unit Name||Periods||Marks|
|Unit – I||Solid State||10||23 Marks|
|Unit – II||Solutions||10|
|Unit – III||Electro – chemistry||12|
|Unit – IV||Chemical Kinetics||10|
|Unit – V||Surface Chemistry||08|
|Unit – VI||Isolation of Elements||08||19 Marks|
|Unit – VII||p-Block Elements||12|
|Unit – VIII||d- and f-Block Elements||12|
|Unit – IX||Coordination Compounds||12|
|Unit – X||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes||10||28 Marks|
|Unit – XI||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers||10|
|Unit – XII||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids||10|
|Unit – XIII||Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen||10|
|Unit – XIV||Biomolecules||12|
|Unit – XV||Polymers||08|
|Unit – XVI||Chemistry in Everyday Life||06|
Chemistry CBSE Class XII Syllabus 2018 – 2019
Unit – I : Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type
Unit – II : Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van’t Hoff factor.
Unit – III : Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variationsof conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit – IV : Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Unit – V : Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit – VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolytic method
and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
Unit – VII : Some p -Block Elements
Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure only) ; Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit – VIII : “d” and “f” Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid
contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit – IX : Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit – X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit – XI : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic
nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit – XII : Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha
hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit – XIII : Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in text.
Diazonium salts : Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit – XIV : Biomolecules
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), DL configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins – Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea
only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Unit – XV : Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit – XVI : Chemistry in Everyday life
Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,
antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Practicals for Class XII CBSE Chemistry Syllabus
Evaluation Scheme and Syllabus
|Volumetric Analysis||08 Marks|
|Salt Analysis||08 Marks|
|Content Based Experiment||06 Marks|
|Project Work||04 Marks|
|Class record and Viva||04 Marks|
|Total Marks||30 Marks|
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.
- Surface chemistry
- Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol
Lyophilic sol – starch, egg albumin and gum
Lyophobic sol- aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
- Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
- Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.
- Chemical Kinetics
- Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
- Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of Iodide ion with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of Iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between Potassium lodate, (KIO3,) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3,) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
Any one of the following experiments
- Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
- Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH).
- Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+ || Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.
- Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
- Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).
- Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
- Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum.
- Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.
- Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of any one of the following compounds
- Di -benzal Acetone
- Aniline yellow or 2 – Naphthol Aniline dye.
- Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.
- Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.
- Determination of concentration? Molarity of KMnO4solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
- Oxalic acid,
- Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
- Qualitative analysis
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cation ‒ Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+ , Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+
Anions ‒ CO3 2‒, S2‒, SO32‒, SO42‒, NO2‒, NO3‒, Cl‒, Br‒, I‒, PO43‒, C2O42‒, CH3COO‒
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects.
- Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
- Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
- Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
- Study of the effect of Potassium Bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time, etc.)
- Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.
- Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice, etc.
- Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
- Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric power, chilli powder and pepper.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
Recommended Books for CBSE Class 12 2018 – 2019 Chemistry
- Chemistry Part-I, Class-XII, Published by NCERT.
- Chemistry Part-II, Class-XII, Published by NCERT.
|Download PDF Link for CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2018 – 2019||Click Here|
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