# B.Sc 4th Semester Syllabus 2024 – 2nd Year Dravidian Open University Courses

B.Sc 4th Semester Syllabus 2024: Dravidian Open University provides many Undergraduate and postgraduate courses along with their syllabus. In this article, the New applicable syllabus of Dravidian Open University B.Sc 4th Semester 2024 with all the units is updated. Students can download the Dravidian Open University B.Sc fourth semester syllabus in the pdf format on this page. B.Sc 4th Sem syllabus 2024 also available on the official website.

The Dravidian University, Kuppam, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India was established by the Government of Andhra Pradesh with the initial support of the governments of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala for an integrated development of Dravidian languages and culture. At present, it has 20 academic departments and 6 research centers. The Dravidian family of languages, which includes more than 27 tongues, the most ancient, living language family of the world. The University official website is www.dravidianuniversity.ac.in

## Dravidian University B.Sc Course Structure

 B.Sc Course structure at Dravidian University B.Sc is 3 years under graduation course 1st year Semester 1 4 months Duration Semester 2 4 months 2nd year Semester 3 4 months Semester 4 4 months 3rd year Semester 5 4 months Semester 6 4 months

## B.Sc Courses

Most universities offering some of the courses in Bachelor of Science that is given below.

• Biology
• Biochemistry
• Botany
• Chemistry
• Computer Science
• Electronics
• Environmental Science
• Mathematics
• Physics
• Zoology

### Subjects in B.Sc IV Semester – Dravidian University

The following are the Dravidian University B.Sc second year – second-semester subjects

• Mathematics
• Physics
• Zoology
• Chemistry
• Botany
• Electronics
• Computer science/Information Technology

• UNIT – I: REAL NUMBERS :
The algebraic and order properties of R, Absolute value and Real line, Completeness property of
R, Applications of supreme property; intervals. No. Question is to be set from this portion.
Real Sequences: Sequences and their limits, Range and Boundedness of Sequences, Limit of a sequence and Convergent sequence. The Cauchy’s criterion, properly divergent sequences, Monotone sequences, Necessary and Sufficient the condition for Convergence of Monotone Sequence, Limit Point of Sequence, Subsequences and the Bolzano-weierstrass theorem – Cauchy Sequences – Cauchey’s general principle of convergence theorem.
• UNIT –II: INFINITE SERIES :
Series: Introduction to series, convergence of series. Cauchey’s general principle of convergence for series tests for convergence of series, Series of Non-Negative Terms.
1. P-test
2. Cauchey’s nth root test or Root Test.
3. D’-Alemberts’ Test or Ratio Test.
4. Alternating Series – Leibnitz Test.
Absolute convergence and conditional convergence, semi convergence.
• UNIT – III: CONTINUITY :
Limits: Real-valued Functions, Boundedness of a function, Limits of functions. Some extensions
of the limit concept, Infinite Limits. Limits at infinity. No. Question is to be set from this portion.
Continuous functions : Continuous functions, Combinations of continuous functions, Continuous
Functions on intervals, uniform continuity.
• UNIT – IV: DIFFERENTIATION AND MEAN VALUE THEOREMS :
The derivability of a function, on an interval, at a point, Derivability and continuity of a function,
Graphical meaning of the Derivative, Mean value Theorems; Role’s Theorem, Lagrange’s Theorem, Cauchhy’s Mean value Theorem
• UNIT – V: RIEMANN INTEGRATION :
Riemann Integral, Riemann integral functions, Darboux theorem. Necessary and sufficient condition for R – integrability, Properties of integrable functions, Fundamental theorem of integral calculus, integral as the limit of a sum, Mean value Theorems.

• UNIT-I
1. Kinetic theory of gases
Introduction –Deduction of Maxwell’s law of distribution of molecular speeds, experimental
verification. Transport phenomena – Mean free path – Viscosity of gases-thermal conductivity-diffusion of gases.
• UNIT-II
2. Thermodynamics
Introduction- Isothermal and adiabatic process- Reversible and irreversible processes Carnnot’s
engine and its efficiency-Carnot’s theorem-Second law of thermodynamics.
Kelvin’s and Claussius statements-Entropy, physical significance –Change in entropy in
reversible and irreversible processes-Entropy and disorder-Entropy of Universe–Temperature-Entropy (T-S) diagram and its uses – Change of entropy of a perfect gas change of entropy when ice changes into steam.
• UNIT-III
3. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell’s equations                                                                Thermodynamic potentials-Derivation of Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations-ClausiusClayperon’s equation-Derivation for ratio of specific heats-Derivation for difference of two specific heats for a perfect gas. Joule Kelvin effect-expression for Joule Kelvin coefficient for perfect and Vander Waal’s gas.
• UNIT-IV
4. Low-temperature Physics
Introduction-Joule Kelvin effect-Porous plug experiment – Joule expansion-Distinction
between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion-Expression for Joule Thomson coolingLiquefaction
of helium, Kapitza’s method-Adiabatic demagnetization, Production of low
temperatures -applications of substances at low temperature-effects of chloro and fluoro
carbons on ozone layer.
• UNIT-V
Blackbody-Ferry’s black body-distribution of energy in the spectrum of black body-Wein’s
displacement law, Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law-Quantum theory of radiation-Planck’s
law-Measurement of radiation-Types of pyrometers-Disappearing filament optical
pyrometer-experimental determination – Angstrompyrheliometer-determination of solar
constant, Temperature of Sun

SPECTROSCOPY & PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY)

SPECTROSCOPY
UNIT-I
General features of absorption – Beer-Lambert’s law and its limitations, transmittance,
Absorbance, and molar absorptivity. Single and double beam spectrophotometers.
Application of Beer-Lambert law for quantitative analysis of 1. Chromium in K2Cr2O7
2. Manganese in Manganous sulphate
Electronic spectroscopy: 8h
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules and types of molecular spectra.
Energy levels of molecular orbitals (σ, π, n). Selection rules for electronic spectra. Types
of electronic transitions in molecules effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore and
auxochrome.

UNIT-II
Infrared spectroscopy
Different Regions in Infrared radiations. Modes of vibrations in diatomic and polyatomic
molecules. Characteristic absorption bands of various functional groups. Interpretation of
spectra-Alkanes, Aromatic, Alcohols carbonyls, and amines with one example to each.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) 8h
Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance, equivalent and non-equivalent protons,
position of signals. Chemical shift, NMR splitting of signals – spin-spin coupling,
coupling constants. Applications of NMR with suitable examples – ethyl bromide,
ethanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1,2-tribromo ethane, ethyl acetate, toluene and acetophenone.
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

UNIT-III
Dilute solutions 10h
Colligative properties. Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, its relation to the molecular weight of non-volatile solute. Elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point. Derivation of the relation between molecular weight and elevation in boiling point and depression in freezing point. Experimental methods of determination. Osmosis, osmotic pressure, experimental determination. Theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molecular weight of non-volatile solute from osmotic pressure. Abnormal Colligative properties- Van’t Hoff factor.

UNIT-IV
Electrochemistry-I
Specific conductance, equivalent conductance. Variation of equivalent conductance with dilution. Migration of ions, Kohlrausch’s law. Arrhenius theory of electrolyte dissociation and its limitations. Ostwald’s dilution law. DebyeHuckel-Onsagar’s equation for strong electrolytes (elementary treatment only). Definition of transport number, determination by Hittorfs method. Application of conductivity measurements- conductometric titrations.

UNIT-V
1. Electrochemistry-II
Single electrode potential, sign convention, Reversible and irreversible cells Nernst Equation- Reference electrode, Standard Hydrogen electrode, calomel electrode, Indicator electrode, metal-metal ion electrode, Inert electrode, Determination of EMF of cell, Applications of EMF measurements – Potentiometric titrations.

2.Phase rule
Concept of phase, components, degrees of freedom. Thermodynamic Derivation of Gibbs phase rule. Phase equilibrium of one component system – water system. Phase equilibrium of two-component system, solid-liquid equilibrium. Simple eutectic diagram of Pb-Ag system, simple eutectic diagram,
desilverization of lead., NaCl-Water system, Freezing mixtures.

• UNIT I
Concept of Abstract Data Types (ADTs)- Data Types, Data Structures, Storage Structures, and File Structures, Primitive and Non-primitive Data Structures, Linear and Non-linear Data Structures.
• UNIT II
Queues: Definition, ADT, Array and Linked representations, Circular Queues, Dequeues, Priority Queues, Implementations and Applications.
• UNIT III
Trees: Binary Tree, Definition, Properties, ADT, Array and Linked representations, Implementations and Applications. Binary Search Trees (BST) – Definition, ADT, Operations and Implementations, BST Applications. Threaded Binary Trees, Heap trees.
• UNIT IV
Graphs – Graph and its Representation, Graph Traversals, Connected Components, Basic Searching Techniques, Minimal Spanning Trees
• UNIT- V
Sorting and Searching: Selection, Insertion, Bubble, Merge, Quick, Heap sort, Sequential, and Binary Searching.

Analog and Digital ic-applications

• Unit – I
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: Definition, Basic op-amp Ideal op-amp, Block diagram of op-amp, inverting, noninverting, virtual ground, Adders, subtractors, summing amplifier, voltage follower, op-amp parameters, voltage to current converter, integrator, differentiator,
differential amplifier, Logarithmic amplifier.
• Unit- II
OP-AMP CIRCUITS: voltage regulator, comparator, the zero-cross detecting circuit, instrumentational amplifier, multi vibrators-astable, monostable, Bi-stable, Schmitt trigger. sine wave generator, square wave generator, triangular wave generator, Active filters(Basics)-low pass, high pass, bandpass filters IC-555 –functional block diagram and mention its applications
• Unit-III:
COMBINATIONAL & SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS (IC-Applications):
Design of Code convertor: BCD to Seven Segment, BCD to Grey, Grey to Binary. Design of Counters using State Machine: Mod N counter, Preset Table, Binary Up/Down Counter. Design of Universal Shift Register
• UNIT-IV (10hrs)
DATA CONVERTERS:
A/D converter:- Successive Approximation ADC,-Single slope and dual-slope converter, Sigma-delta ADC, D/A converter: R-2R Ladder network, Binary Weighted.
• UNIT-V (10hrs)
DIGITAL SYSTEM INTERFACING AND APPLICATIONS: interfacing of LED’s
Applications of Counters: Digital Clock
Applications of Shift Registers: Parallel to Serial, Serial to Parallel, UART

UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations

1. Physical properties of water, Importance of water to plant life.
2. Diffusion, imbibition and osmosis; concept & components of Water potential.
3. Absorption and transport of water and ascent of sap.
4. Transpiration –Definition, types of transpiration, structure and opening and closing
mechanism of stomata.

UNIT –II: Mineral nutrition & Enzymes

1. Mineral Nutrition: Essential elements (macro and micronutrients) and their role in
plant metabolism, deficiency symptoms.
2. Mineral ion uptake (active and passive transport).
3. Nitrogen metabolism- biological nitrogen fixation in Rhizobium, outlines of protein
synthesis (transcription and translation).
4. Enzymes: General characteristics, mechanism of enzyme action and factors
regulating enzyme action.

UNIT –III: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic light reactions, photo
phosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM (brief account)
2. Photorespiration and its significance.
3. Translocation of organic solutes: mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink
relationships.

UNIT – IV: PLANT METABOLISM
1. Respiration: Glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, TCA cycle, electron transport system.
Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.
2. Lipid Metabolism: Types of lipids, Beta-oxidation.

UNIT –V: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Growth and development: definition, phases and kinetics of growth.
2. Physiological effects of phytohormones – Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins,
ABA, Ethylene and Brassinosteroids.
3. Physiology of flowering -photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering;
Vernalization.
4. Physiology of Senescence and Ageing.
Suggested activity: Seminars, Quiz, Debate, Question and Answer sessions, observing animations of protein biosynthesis in youtube.

EMBRYOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND ECOLOGY

• Unit – I
1.1 Developmental Biology and Embryology
1.1.1 Gametogenesis
1.1.2 Fertilization
1.1.3 Types of eggs
1.1.4 Types of cleavages
1.2 Development of Frog up to the formation of primary germ layers
1.3 Formation and functions of Foetal membrane in chick embryo
1.4 Development, types, and functions of Placenta in mammals
• Unit – II
2.1 Physiology – I
2.1.1 Elementary study of the process of digestion
2.1.2 Absorption of digested food
2.1.3 Respiration – Pulmonary ventilation, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
2.1.4 Circulation – Structure and functioning of heart, Cardiac cycle
2.1.5 Excretion – Structure of nephron, urine formation, counter-current mechanism
• Unit – III
3.1 Physiology – II
3.1.1 Nerve impulse transmission – Resting membrane potential, origin and
propagation of action potentials along myelinated and non-myelinated nerve
fibers
3.1.2 Muscle contraction – Ultrastructure of muscle fiber, molecular and
chemical basis of muscle contraction
3.1.3 Endocrine glands – Structure, secretions, and the functions (of hormones)
of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreas
3.1.4 Hormonal control of reproduction in a mammal
• Unit – IV
4.1 Ecology – I
4.1.1 Meaning and scope of Ecology
4.1.2 Important abiotic factors of Ecosystem – Temperature, light, water, oxygen, and CO2
4.1.3 Nutrient cycles – Nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
4.1.4 Components of Ecosystem (Example: lake), food chains and food web,
energy flow in an ecosystem
• Unit – V
5.1 Ecology – II
5.1.1 Habitat and ecological niche
5.1.2 Community interactions – Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, competition, predation
5.1.3 Ecological succession
5.1.4 Population studies
5.2 Zoogeography
5.2.1 Zoogeographical regions
5.2.2 Study of physical and faunal peculiarities of Oriental, Australian, and Ethiopian regions

### What is B.Sc 4th semester?

B.Sc 4th semester is the second semester of the second year of the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree program.

### What is the syllabus of B.Sc 4th semester?

The syllabus of B.Sc 4th semester varies depending on the university or college. However, the common subjects in B.Sc 4th semester are Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Zoology, Botany, Computer Science, and Electronics.

### What are the subjects in B.Sc 4th semester?

The subjects in B.Sc 4th semester may include Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Zoology, Botany, Computer Science, and Electronics.

### What are the courses in B.Sc 4th semester?

The courses in B.Sc 4th semester may include Quantum Mechanics, Statistical Mechanics, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Differential Equations, Genetics, Plant Physiology, Microbiology, Data Structures, Digital Electronics, and Computer Networks.

### What is the duration of B.Sc 4th semester?

The duration of B.Sc 4th semester is generally around 4-6 months, depending on the university or college.

### What are the career options after B.Sc 4th semester?

After completing B.Sc 4th semester, students can pursue higher studies such as M.Sc, MBA, or pursue a career in fields like research and development, teaching, government jobs, private sectors, and many more.

### What is B.Sc 4th semester syllabus?

The B.Sc 4th semester syllabus typically varies depending on the university or institution offering the program. However, some common subjects include Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Computer Science. The syllabus may also include practical components, depending on the subjects.

### What are the courses covered in B.Sc 4th semester?

The courses covered in B.Sc 4th semester can vary depending on the university or institution offering the program. However, some common courses include Calculus, Linear Algebra, Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Cell Biology, and Computer Programming.

### How do I prepare for B.Sc 4th semester exams?

To prepare for B.Sc 4th semester exams, it is important to attend all lectures and take notes, read textbooks, solve practice problems and past papers, and discuss the material with classmates and professors. It is also important to manage your time effectively and create a study schedule to ensure you cover all the material before the exams.

### One comment

1. #### Sskmahveen

Thank you for giving this information